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Urinary Tract Infection (U.T.I.)

URINARY TRACT INFECTION (U.T.I.)

DEFINATION

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system . your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.

CAUSES

Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder.

The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.

  • Infection of the bladder (cystitis). 
  1. This type of UTI is usually caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), a type of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  2. Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don't have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy 
  3. specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
  • Infection of the urethra (urethritis).
  1.  This type of UTI can occur when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. 
  2. Also, because the female urethra is close to the vagina, sexually transmitted infections, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma, can cause urethritis.

TYPES

An infection can happen in different parts of your urinary tract. Each type has a different name, based on where it is.

  1. Cystitis (bladder): You might feel like you need to pee a lot, or it might hurt when you pee. You also have lower belly pain and cloudy or bloody urine.
  2. Pyelonephritis (kidneys): This can cause fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in your upper back or side.
  3. Urethritis (urethra): This can cause a discharge and burning when you pee.

SYMPTOMS

Urinary tract infections don't always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
  • Urine that appears cloudy
  • Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
  • Strong-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone

Risk factors

  • Certain types of birth control. 

    Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents.

  • Menopause. 

    After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection.

  • Female anatomy. 

    A woman has a shorter urethra than a man does, which shortens the distance that bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.

  • Sexual activity. 

    Sexually active women tend to have more UTIs than do women who aren't sexually active. Having a new sexual partner also increases your risk.

Other risk factors for UTIs include:

  • Urinary tract abnormalities.
  • Blockages in the urinary tract.
  • A suppressed immune system
  • Catheter use.
  •  A recent urinary procedure.

COMPLICATIONS 

  • Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience two or more UTIs in a six-month period or four or more within a year.
  • Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
  • Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
  • Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
  • Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up your urinary tract to your kidneys.

Prevention

  • Drink plenty of liquids, especially water.
  • Drink cranberry juice.
  • Wipe from front to back.
  • Empty your bladder soon after intercourse.
  •  Avoid potentially irritating feminine products.
  •  Change your birth control method.

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR UTI

  1. Cantharis
    • Strong urging to urinate—with cutting pains that are felt before the urine passes, as well as during and after—may indicate a need for this remedy. 
    • Only several drops pass at a time, with a scalding sensation. 
    • The person may feel as if the bladder has not been emptied, still feeling a constant urge to urinate.
  2. Nux vomica
    • Irritable bladder with a constant need to urinate, passing only small amounts, suggests a need for this remedy. 
    • Burning or cramping pain may be felt in the bladder area, with an itching sensation in the urethra while the urine passes. 
    • The person may feel very irritable, impatient, and chilly.
    • Symptoms may be relieved by hot baths or other forms of warmth.
  3. Sarsaparilla
    • This remedy is often useful in cystitis and often helps when symptoms are unclear, or if other remedies have not been effective. 
    • Frequent urging is felt, with burning pain at the end of urination.
    • Urine passes when the person is standing up, but only dribbling occurs while sitting.
    • Flakes or sediment are sometimes seen in the urine. Other Remedies
  4. Aconitum Nepellus
    • This remedy is often useful when a person feels anxious both before and during urination.
    • also have hot, scanty urine, and a burning or spasmodic feeling in the outlet of the bladder.
    • It can also be helpful if retention of urine occurs after a person has been very cold and chilled, or after a shaking experience.
  5. Apis mellifica
    • This remedy is indicated when the person frequently needs to urinate, but only small quantities are passed.
    • Stinging and burning sensations are felt (especially with the last few drops) and the person may also experience soreness in the abdomen. 
    • Heat and touch make the symptoms worse, and cold applications, cool bathing, and open air bring relief. 
    • A lack of thirst is another indication that Apis may be needed.
  6. Belladonna
    • This remedy may be beneficial if urging to urinate is frequent and intense, and the bladder feels very sensitive.
    • A cramping or writhing sensation may be felt in the bladder area. 
    • Small amounts of highly-colored urine pass.
  7. Berberis vulgaris
    • Cystitis with twinges of cutting pain, or a burning feeling that extends to the urethra and its opening, may indicate a need for this remedy.
    • The passage may also burn at times when no attempt at urination is being made.
    • After emptying the bladder, the person feels as if some urine still remains inside.
    • Urging and discomfort are often worse from walking.
  8. Borax
    • This remedy can be helpful for cystitis with smarting pain in the urinary opening and aching in the bladder, with a feeling that the urine is retained. 
    • Children may cry or shriek, afraid to urinate because they know the pain is coming. 
    • Borax is often indicated for people who are sensitive to noise and inclined toward motion sickness.
  9. Chimaphila umbellata
    • If a person has a troublesome urge to urinate but has to strain (or even stand up and lean forward) to make it pass, this remedy may be useful.
    • A scalding sensation may be felt while the urine flows, with a feeling of straining afterward.
  10. Clematis
    • This remedy may be indicated if a person has to urinate frequently with only a small amount being passed. 
    • A feeling of constriction is felt in the urinary passage, and the flow may be interrupted, or there may be dribbling afterward.
    • A tingling sensation may occur, lasting long after urination is finished.
  11. Equisetum
    • If cystitis is accompanied by dull but distressing pain and a feeling of fullness in the bladder, even after urinating, this remedy may be helpful. 
    • Urging and discomfort are more intense when the bladder has recently been emptied, improving over time as the bladder become more full.
  12. Lycopodium
    • This remedy may be helpful if a person has to urinate frequently during the night and passes large amounts of urine. 
    • Or the person may feel a painful urge, but has to strain to make the urine flow. 
    • Pain may be felt in the back before the urine passes.
  13.  Sepia
    • This remedy may be helpful if a person has to urinate frequently, with sudden urging, a sense that urine will leak if urination is delayed, and small amounts of involuntary urine loss. 
    • The person may experience a bearing-down feeling in the bladder region, or pressure above the pubic bone.
    • A person who needs this remedy often feels worn-out and irritable, with cold extremities, and a lax or sagging feeling in the pelvic area.
  14. Staphysagria
    • Pressure may be felt in the bladder after urinating, as if it is still not empty. A sensation that a drop of urine is rolling through the urethra, or a constant burning feeling
    • Staphysagria is also useful for cystitis that develops after illnesses with extended bed rest, or after the use of catheters.