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Skin-Disorder

SKIN DISORDER

Definition

Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity. They can be temporary or permanent, and may be painless or painful. Some have situational causes, while others may be genetic. Some skin conditions are minor, and others can be life -threatening. The skin plays a very important role as a barrier to chemicals and other contaminants entering the body. Skin disorders may disrupt this barrier function.

ECZEMA

Eczema is a condition where in patches of skin become inflamed, itchy, cracked, and rough. Some types can also cause blisters.

TYPES OF ECZEMA

  1. Atopic Dermatitis :

This health condition has a genetic basis and produces a common type of eczema. Atopic dermatitis tends to begin early in life in those with a predisposition to inhalant allergies, but it probably does not have an allergic basis. Characteristically, rashes occur on the cheeks, neck, elbow and knee creases, and ankles.

Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema. It usually starts in childhood, and often gets milder or goes away by adulthood. Atopic dermatitis is part of what doctors call the atopic triad. “Triad” means three. The other two diseases in the triad are asthma and hay fever. Many people with atopic dermatitis have all three conditions.

Symptoms

In atopic dermatitis :

  • the rash often forms in the creases of your elbows or knees
  • skin in areas where the rash appears may turn lighter or darker, or get thicker
  • small bumps may appear and leak fluid if scratch them
  • babies often get the rash on their scalp and cheeks
  • skin can get infected if scratch it .

Causes

Atopic dermatitis happens when skin’s natural barrier against the elements is weakened. This means skin is less able to protect against irritants and allergens. Atopic dermatitis is likely caused by a combination of factors such as :

  • Genes
  • Dry skin
  • An immune system problem
  • Triggers in the environment

Complications

Complications of Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) may include :

  1. Asthma and hay fever.

    Eczema sometimes precedes these conditions. More than half of young children with atopic dermatitis develop asthma and hay fever by age 13.

  2. Chronic itchy/ scaly skin.

    A skin condition called Neurodermatitis . (lichen simplex chronicus) starts with a patch of itchy skin. You scratch the area, which makes it even itchier. Eventually, you may scratch simply out of habit. This condition can cause the affected skin to become discolored, thick and leathery.

  3. Skin infections.

    Repeated scratching that breaks the skin can cause open sores and cracks. These increase the risk of infection from bacteria and viruses, including the herpes simplex virus.

  4. Irritant hand dermatitis.

    This especially affects people whose work requires that their hands are often wet and exposed to harsh soaps, detergents and disinfectants.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    This condition is common in people with atopic dermatitis.

  6. Sleep problems.

    The itch-scratch cycle can cause poor sleep quality.

Contact Dermatitis

If have red, irritated skin that’s caused by a reaction to substances touch, may have contact dermatitis.

It comes in two types

Allergic Contact Dermatitis :

Allergic contact dermatitis is an immune system reaction to an irritant like latex or metal.

After repeated exposures to the same substance, an allergen, the body's immune recognition system becomes activated at the site of the next exposure and produces dermatitis. An example of this would be poison ivy allergy.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis :

Irritant contact dermatitis starts when a chemical or other substance irritates your skin.

This occurs when the skin is repeatedly exposed to excessive washing or toxic substances.

Symptoms

In contact dermatitis :

  • your skin itches, turns red, burns, and stings
  • itchy bumps called hives may pop up on your skin
  • fluid-filled blisters can form that may ooze and crust over
  • over time, the skin may thicken and feel scaly or leathery.

Causes

Contact dermatitis happens when touch a substance that irritates skin or causes an allergic reaction. The most common causes are :

  • detergents
  • bleach
  • jewelry
  • latex
  • nickel
  • paint
  • poison ivy and other poisonous plants
  • skin care products, including makeup
  • soaps and perfumes
  • solvents
  • tobacco smoke

Stasis Dermatitis

It commonly occurs on the swollen lower legs of people who have poor circulation in the veins of the legs.

Symptoms

In stasis dermatitis:

  • the lower part of legs may swell up, especially during the day when have been walking
  • legs may ache or feel heavy
  • will likely also have varicose veins, which are thick, ropey damaged veins in legs
  • the skin over those varicose veins will be dry and itchy
  • may develop open sores on your lower legs and on the tops of feet

Causes

Stasis dermatitis happens in people who have blood flow problems in their lower legs. If the valves that normally push blood up through your legs toward your heart malfunction, blood can pool in your legs. Your legs can swell up and varicose veins can form.

Pompholyx (Dyshidrotic Eczema):

This is a common but poorly understood health condition which classically affects the hands and occasionally the feet by producing an itchy rash composed of tiny blisters (vesicles) on the sides of the fingers or toes and palms or soles.

Dyshidrotic eczema causes small blisters to form on hands and feet. It’s more common in women than men.

Symptoms

In dyshidrotic eczema:

  • Fluid-filled blisters form on your fingers, toes, palms, and soles of your feet
  • These blisters may itch or hurt
  • The skin can scale, crack, and flake

Causes

Dyshidrotic eczema can be caused by :

  • Allergies
  • Damp hands and feet
  • Exposure to substances such as nickel, cobalt, or chromium salt
  • Stress

Lichen Simplex Chronicus :

It produces thickened plaques of skin commonly found on the shins and neck.

Lichen simplex chronicus is chronic, itchy inflammation of the top layer of the skin.

Lichen simplex chronicus involves a cycle in which scratching provokes itching, which provokes more scratching.

It most often affects the head, arms, neck, and legs.

Nummular Eczema :

This is a nonspecific term for coin-shaped plaques of scaling skin most often on the lower legs of older individuals.

This type of eczema causes round, coin-shaped spots to form on your skin. The word “nummular” means coin in Latin. Nummular eczema looks very different from other types of eczema, and it can itch a lot.

Symptoms

In nummular eczema:

  • round, coin-shaped spots form on your skin
  • the spots may itch or become scaly

Causes

Nummular eczema can be triggered by a reaction to an insect bite, or by an allergic reaction to metals or chemicals. Dry skin can also cause it. You’re more likely to get this form if you have another type of eczema, such as atopic dermatitis.

Xerotic (dry skin) Eczema :

The skin will crack and ooze if dryness becomes excessive.

Xerotic Eczema Symptoms :

Common symptoms of xerotic eczema include:

  • Dry, itchy, peeling skin
  • Cracked skin
  • Redness
  • Pimple-like bumps
  • Cracked skin may become infected with bacteria and become crusted or swollen.
  • Shaving can irritate the skin and cause more symptoms in regularly shaved areas.
  • Symptoms often worsen at night or after a hot shower and may be found on the feet of people who suffer from diabetes. If left treated on diabetes patients, xerotic eczema could lead to other severe problems such as infection, ulcers, or fissures on the feet.

Seborrheic dermatitis :

It produces a rash on the scalp, face, ears, and occasionally the mid-chest in adults.

In infants, in can produce a weepy, oozy rash behind the ears and can be quite extensive, involving the entire body.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Symptoms

  • Skin might itch or burn.
  • The scales that flake off could be white or yellowish and look moist or oily.
  • Babies 3 months and younger often get cradle cap: crusty yellow or brown scales on their scalp. It usually goes away before they're a year old, although it can come back when they reach puberty.
  • Parents might mistake seborrheic dermatitis for diaper rash.
  • Adults might get seborrheic dermatitis on their face, especially around their nose, in their eyebrows, on their eyelids, or behind their ears.

It can show up on other parts of your body, too :

  • In the middle part of your chest
  • Around your navel
  • On your buttocks
  • In skin folds under your arms and on your legs
  • In your groin
  • Below your breasts

Seborrheic Dermatitis Causes :

  • Stress
  • Your genes
  • A yeast that usually lives on your skin without causing problems
  • Certain medical conditions and medicines
  • Cold, dry weather
  • An immune system response

Eczema Diagnosis

No one test can spot eczema. will probably diagnose it by looking at skin and by asking a few questions.

  1. Because many people with eczema also have allergies, may order some allergy tests to look for irritants or triggers. Children with eczema are especially likely to have allergy tests.

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICATION FOR ECZEMA

1.Arsenicum album

People who need this remedy usually are anxious, restless, and compulsively neat and orderly. The skin is dry, itches, and burns intensely. Scratching can make the itching worse, and applying heat will bring relief. Indigestion with burning pain and a general feeling of chilliness are often seen when Arsenicum is indicated.

2. Calcarea carbonica

This remedy is suited to people who are chilly with clammy hands and feet, and tend to develop eczema and cracking skin that is worse in the wintertime. They are easily fatigued by exertion, and feel anxious and overwhelmed if ill or overworked. Cravings for sweets and eggs, a sluggish metabolism, and a tendency toward weight problems are other indications for Calcarea.

3. Graphites

People likely to respond to this remedy have tough or leathery skin with cracks and soreness, and often have a long-term history of skin disorders (impetigo, herpes, etc.) The areas behind the ears, around the mouth, or on the hands are often cracked, with a golden oozing discharge that hardens into crusts. Itching is worse from getting warm in bed, and the person will often scratch the irritated places till they bleed. Difficulty concentrating, especially in the morning, is often seen in a person who needs Graphites.

4. Hepar sulphuris

This remedy may be helpful to very sensitive, chilly people whose eczema is extremely sore and becomes infected easily. The skin, especially on the hands and feet, looks chapped and deeply cracked and is very slow to heal. The person usually feels vulnerable and irritable, with a low resistance to illness and infection.

5.Mezereum

A person who needs this remedy often has strong anxiety, felt physically in the stomach. Intensely itching eruptions start as blisters, then ooze and form thick crusts, and scratching can lead to thickened skin. Cold applications often help the itch (although the person is chilly in general). A craving for fat and a tendency to feel better in open air are other indications for Mezereum.

6.Rhus toxicodendron

A person whose eczema has blisterlike eruptions that look red and swollen, itch intensely, and are soothed by hot applications may respond to this remedy. The person is restless from discomfort and often is very irritable and anxious. Muscle stiffness, relieved by warmth and motion, is also likely. A person who needs Rhus tox often craves cold milk.

7.Sulphur

Intensely burning, itching, inflamed eruptions that are worse from warmth and worse from bathing suggest a need for this remedy. Affected areas may be red, with scaling or crusted skin. Eruptions can be either dry or moist. This remedy is sometimes helpful to people who have repeatedly used medications and ointments on their eczema without success.

8.Antimonium crudum

People likely to respond to this remedy have eczema with thick, cracked skin and are also prone to indigestion. They are usually sensitive and sentimental, love to eat (craving pickles, vinegar, and other sour things), and may be overweight. Children can be shy and irritable, insisting that they not be touched or looked at. Itching is worse from warmth and sun exposure. Antimonium crudum is often indicated for impetigo, plantar warts, and calluses, as well as eczema.

9.Arum triphyllum

This remedy can be useful when allergic skin eruptions are focused on the lower part of the face, especially around the mouth. The chin may look chapped and feel hot and irritated. The lips are cracked (and usually raw from the person picking them) and the nostrils may be sore. People who need this remedy are often inclined toward throat irritation and hoarseness.

10. Calendula

This remedy (in potentized homeopathic form) can be helpful if the irritated skin has a tendency to get infected. Topical use of the unpotentized herb in lotion, gel, or tincture form is soothing to irritated skin, and can often ease inflammation and prevent infection without artificially suppressing it.

11.Petroleum

This remedy is indicated for individuals whose skin is extremely dry and tends to crack, especially on the fingertips and palms. Eczema is worse in winter, with deep, sore cracks that often bleed. The person feels a cold sensation after scratching. Itching is worse at night and from getting warm in bed. The skin is easily infected, and may get tough and leathery from chronic irritation.