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Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue similar to the tissue that forms the lining of your uterus grows outside of your uterine cavity. The lining of your uterus is called the endometrium Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, the endometrial-like tissue acts as endometrial tissue would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called Endometrioma which may form. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during menstrual periods. Fertility problems also may develop.

Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue grows on your ovaries, bowel, and tissues lining your pelvis. It’s unusual for endometrial tissue to spread beyond your pelvic region, but it’s not impossible. Endometrial tissue growing outside of your uterus is known as an endometrial implant.

The hormonal changes of your menstrual cycle affect the misplaced endometrial tissue, causing the area to become inflamed and painful. This means the tissue will grow, thicken, and break down. Over time, the tissue that has broken down has nowhere to go and becomes trapped in your pelvis.

This tissue trapped in your pelvis can cause :

  • irritation
  • scar formation
  • adhesions, in which tissue binds your pelvic organs together
  • severe pain during your periods
  • fertility problems
  • Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition, affecting up to 10 percent of women. 

Types of Endometriosis

There are three main types of endometriosis, based on where it is :  

  1. Superficial peritoneal lesion. This is the most common kind. You have lesions on your peritoneum, a thin film that lines your pelvic cavity.
  2. Endometrioma (ovarian lesion). These dark, fluid-filled cysts, also called chocolate cysts, form deep in your ovaries. They don’t respond well to treatment and can damage healthy tissue.
  3. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis. This type grows under your peritoneum and can involve organs near your uterus, such as your bowels or bladder. About 1% to 5% of women with endometriosis have it.

Endometriosis symptoms

The symptoms of endometriosis vary. Some women experience mild symptoms, but others can have moderate to severe symptoms. The severity of your pain doesn’t indicate the degree or stage of the condition. 

Pelvic pain is the most common symptom of endometriosis. may also have the following symptoms :

  • The main symptoms of endometriosis are pelvic pain that may extend to the back and legs .
  • painful periods (dysmenorrhoea) 
  • pain in the lower abdomen before and during menstruation
  • cramps one or two weeks around menstruation
  • heavy menstrual bleeding or bleeding between periods
  • infertility
  • pain following sexual intercourse
  • discomfort with bowel movements
  • lower back pain that may occur at any time during your menstrual cycle.
  • Dyspareunia
  • Dysuria  
  • rectal pain, bleeding from rectum or bladder at the time of periods. 
  • Lack of energy, tiredness, anxiety, depression are also observed along with the other major symptoms.


Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include:

  1. Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle.
  2. Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial-like cells.
  3. Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial-like cell implants during puberty.
  4. Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision.
  5. Endometrial cell transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body.
  6. Immune system disorder. A problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial-like tissue that's growing outside the uterus.

Risk factors

Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as :

  • Never giving birth
  • Starting your period at an early age
  • Going through menopause at an older age
  • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days
  • Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days
  • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces
  • Low body mass index
  • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis
  • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body
  • Reproductive tract abnormalities 


  • Infertility is a major complication arising from endometriosis
  • Endometriosis Diagnosis
  • Your doctor might suspect endometriosis based on your symptoms. To confirm it, they can do tests including :
  • Laparoscopy. Your doctor makes a small cut in your belly and inserts a thin tube with a camera on the end (called a laparoscope). They can see where and how big lesions are. This is usually the only way to be totally certain that you have endometriosis.
  • Pelvic exam . Your doctor might be able to feel cysts or scars behind your uterus.
  • Imaging tests. An ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI can make detailed pictures of your organs.
  • Biopsy . Your doctor takes a sample of tissue, often during a laparoscopy, and a specialist looks at it under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis.


  • Endometriosis Stages

Four stages of endometriosis :

  1. Stage I (minimal). You have a few small lesions but no scar tissue.
  2. Stage II (mild). There are more lesions but no scar tissue. Less than 2 inches of your abdomen are involved.
  3. Stage II (moderate). The lesions may be deep. You may have endometriomas and scar tissue around your ovaries or fallopian tubes.
  4. Stage IV (severe). There are many lesions and maybe large cysts in your ovaries. You may have scar tissue around your ovaries and fallopian tubes or between your uterus and the lower part of your intestines.The stages don’t take pain or symptoms into account. For example, stage I endometriosis can cause severe pain, but a woman who has stage IV could have no symptoms at all.


  1. SEPIA : For Endometriosis with Pelvic Pain and For Pain during Intercourse (dyspareunia)  and For Endometriosis with Urinary Troubles

    One of the leading remedies for endometriosis with irregular menses. This is another of the reliable Homeopathic medicines for endometriosis indicated in case of marked bearing down pains in the pelvis. Associated sharp clutching pains which move up to navel from pelvis. For painful intercourse with bearing down sensation as if everything would escape through genital outlet. Women prescribed Sepia may also complain of gripping, stitching, clutching pains in the pelvis. Endometriosis with pain during intercourse.  Beneficial medicines for endometriosis with urinary complaints is Sepia. Sepia is considered the most useful among medicines for endometriosis where it is accompanied by urinary urgency and frequency. A bearing down sensation in the pubic region may be felt. Pain while passing urine from endometriosis lesions also indicates use of Sepia.  Pain in the bladder of aching (dull) and burning nature during menses also points to the use of Sepia.

  2. NUX VOMICA : For Endometriosis with Rectal Symptoms

    Good remedy in homeopathic treatment for Endometriosis for irregular and painful menses with marked pain in pelvis and constant urging for stool. The stool is unsatisfactory, scanty and incomplete.  Excessive heavy flow during periods with sensation as if bowel wants to move. Sour taste and nausea in the morning. 

  3. MUREX : For Endometriosis with extremely painful periods

    Effective remedy in homeopathic treatment for Endometriosis of chronic type with extremely painful periods. Pain in breasts during menstruation. Feeling as if something is pressing on the sore spot of pelvis. Menses are irregular, profuse, frequent, painful and clots are also present.

  4. XANTHOXYLUM : For Endometriosis with Painful Periods (dysmenorrhoea)

    It is the best remedy for Endometriosis when periods are very painful, with excruciating pain in the pelvis, back, thighs and legs. The menses are profuse and exhausting.

  5. CIMICIFUGA : For Endometriosis with Painful Periods (dysmenorrhoea)

    This is another most useful of Homeopathic medicines for Endometriosis with pain during periods. It is indicated in case of severe, bearing down pain in the lower abdomen, uterine region and the lower back during periods. It is also prescribed for darting pains in the pelvis from hip to hip. More the menstrual flow, more the pain. Sharp electric shock like pains may appear in various parts of the body as a reflex from uterine or ovarian irritation. hunger soon after eating.sour erructations after meal,loud belchings after food.throughs ingesta by mouthfuls.vomits water as soon as it gets warm in stomach.cardiac opening seems to be contracted Stomach pain is relieved by taking cold water.

  6. SABINA: For Endometriosis with Pelvic Pain

    It is indicated for Endometriosis when colicky or labour-like pains appear in the pelvis. Marked pains in the small of the back and from sacrum and pubis are also observed in such cases. The menses are profuse, partly fluid and part clotted.

  7. PULSATILLA – For Endometriosis with Pelvic Pain

    Pulsatilla Is rated to be the best on the long list of medicines for endometriosis with pelvic pain. Pulsatilla is the most effective among medicines for endometriosis for pelvic pain during periods, attended with chills, restlessness and tossing in bed.

  8. PLATINA – For Pain during Intercourse (dyspareunia)

    Platina is top grade medicines for endometriosis with dyspareunia. platine work as best prescriptions in case of women who complain of marked pain during intercourse. Burning and soreness is also present. The genitals are sensitive to touch. In fact, women prescribed Platina have an increased sexual desire.

  9. LACHESIS– For Endometriosis with Rectal Symptoms

    Lachesis are helpful medicines for endometriosis with rectal symptoms. Lachesis is the most suited medicines for endometriosis with a bleeding rectum during menses. The bleeding is usually accompanied by pain in the rectum.

  10. AMMONIUM MUR – For Endometriosis with Rectal Symptoms

    Ammonium Mur is the most suited medicines for endometriosis with a bleeding rectum during menses. The bleeding is usually accompanied by pain in the rectum.

  11. NATRUM MUR – For Endometriosis with Urinary Troubles

    Natrum Mur is one of the most effective medicines for endometriosis which is mainly prescribed when bleeding from the urinary bladder appears simultaneously with the menses.