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Acne

Acne OR Pimples

DEFINITION

Acne is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that causes spots and pimples, especially on the face, shoulders, back, neck, chest, and upper arms.Acne is a skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. It causes whiteheads, blackheads or pimples. Acne is most common among teenagers, though it affects people of all ages.

Acne can be persistent. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up.Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. The earlier start treatment, the lower risk of such problems.


TYPES OF ACNE

1.NON-INFLAMMATORY ACNE

  • a.WHITEHEADS
  • b.BLACKHEADS

2.INFLAMMATORY ACNE

  • a.PAPULES
  • b.PUSTULES
  • c.NODULES
  • d.CYSTIC LESIONS

SYMPTOMS

Acne usually appears on the face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders.

Acne signs vary depending on the severity of your condition:

1.Non Inflammatory Acne

Non Inflammatory acne includes blackheads and whiteheads. These normally don’t cause swelling. They also respond relatively well to over-the-counter (OTC) treatments.

Salicylic acid is often marketed for acne in general, but it usually works best on non-inflammatory acne. It naturally exfoliates the skin, removing dead skin cells that can lead to blackheads and whiteheads.

SUBTYPES OF NON-INFLAMMATORY ACNE

  • Whiteheads (closed plugged pores)

    Whiteheads can also form when a pore gets clogged by sebum and dead skin cells. But unlike with blackheads, the top of the pore closes up. It looks like a small bump protruding from the skin.

    Whiteheads are more difficult to treat because the pores are already closed.

  • Blackheads (open plugged pores)

    Blackheads occur when a pore is clogged by a combination of sebum and dead skin cells. The top of the pore stays open, despite the rest of it being clogged. This results in the characteristic black color seen on the surface.

2.Inflammatory Acne

Pimples that are red and swollen are referred to as inflammatory acne.

Although sebum and dead skin cells contribute to inflammatory acne, bacteria can also play a role in clogging up pores. Bacteria can cause an infection deep beneath the skin’s surface. This may result in painful acne spots that are hard to get rid of.

SUBTYPES OF INFLAMATORY ACNE

Pustules can also form when the walls around your pores break down. Unlike papules, pustules are filled with pus. These bumps come out from the skin and are usually red in color. They often have yellow or white heads on top.

  1. Small red, tender bumps (Papules)

    Papules occur when the walls surrounding your pores break down from severe inflammation. This results in hard, clogged pores that are tender to the touch. The skin around these pores is usually pink.

  2. Pimples (Pustules)

    which are papules with pus at their tips

  3. Large, solid, painful lumps under the skin (Nodules)

    Nodules occur when clogged, swollen pores endure further irritation and grow larger. Unlike pustules and papules, nodules are deeper underneath the skin.Because nodules are so deep within the skin.

  4. Painful, pus-filled lumps under the skin (Cystic lesions)

    Cysts can develop when pores are clogged by a combination of bacteria, sebum, and dead skin cells. The clogs occur deep within the skin and are further below the surface than nodules.

    These large red or white bumps are often painful to the touch. Cysts are the largest form of acne, and their formation usually results from a severe infection. This type of acne is also the most likely to scar.


CAUSES

Four main factors cause acne:

  • Excess oil (sebum) production
  • Hair follicles clogged by oil and dead skin cells
  • Bacteria
  • Inflammation

Acne typically appears on face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil (sebaceous) glands. Hair follicles are connected to oil glands.

The follicle wall may bulge and produce a whitehead. Or the plug may be open to the surface and darken, causing a blackhead. A blackhead may look like dirt stuck in pores. But actually the pore is congested with bacteria and oil, which turns brown when it's exposed to the air.

Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Blockages and inflammation deep inside hair follicles produce cyst like lumps beneath the surface of skin. Other pores in skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands, aren't usually involved in acne.

Certain things may trigger or worsen acne:

  1. Hormonal changes.

    Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum. Hormone changes during midlife, particularly in women, can lead to breakouts too.

  2. Certain medications.

    Examples include drugs containing corticosteroids, testosterone or lithium.

  3. Diet.

    Studies indicate that consuming certain foods — including carbohydrate-rich foods, such as bread, bagels and chips — may worsen acne. Further study is needed to examine whether people with acne would benefit from following specific dietary restrictions.

  4. Stress.

    Stress doesn't cause acne, but if you have acne already, stress may make it worse.

COMPLICATION

People with darker skin types are more likely than are people with lighter skin to experience these acne complications:

  1. Scars.

    Pitted skin (acne scars) and thick scars (keloids) can remain long-term after acne has healed.

  2. Skin changes.

    After acne has cleared, the affected skin may be darker (hyperpigmented) or lighter (hypopigmented) than before the condition occurred.

RISK FACTORS

Risk factors for acne include:

  1. Age.

    People of all ages can get acne, but it's most common in teenagers.

  2. Hormonal changes.

    Such changes are common during puberty or pregnancy.

  3. Family history.

    Genetics plays a role in acne. If both of your parents had acne, you're likely to develop it too.

  4. Greasy or oily substances.

    May develop acne where your skin comes into contact with oil or oily lotions and creams.

  5. Friction or pressure on skin.

    This can be caused by items such as telephones, cellphones, helmets, tight collars and backpacks.

DIAGNOSIS

Acne can diagnose by looking at your skin. This involves examining your face, chest or back for the different types of spot, such as blackheads or sore, red nodules. How severe your acne is will determine where you should go for treatment and what treatment you should have.

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICATION FOR ACNE

  1. PULSATILLA - For Acne in Women

    This remedy can be helpful if acne is worse from eating rich or fatty foods, and aggravated by warmth or heat. It is indicated especially around the time of puberty, or when acne breaks out near menstrual periods. The person often has a fair complexion and is inclined toward soft emotions and moodiness, feeling worse in warm or stuffy rooms and better in fresh air.

  2. SILICEA ( SILICA ) - For Acne on Forehead

    A person with deep-seated acne along with a general low immune resistance, swollen lymph nodes, and a tendency toward fatigue and nervousness may benefit from this remedy. Infected spots are slow to come to a head, and also slow to resolve, so may result in scarring. A person who needs this remedy is generally very chilly, but inclined to sweat at night.

  3. SULPHUR IODUM

    Relieves acne located on the forehead and the back, aggravated by heat, and occurring periodically.

  4. ANTIMONIUM TART

    This remedy may be helpful for acne with large pustules that are tender to touch, with bluish-red marks that remain on the skin after active infection has passed. The person may be irritable, with low resistance to illness.

  5. CALCAREA SULPH - For Acne that is Pustular

    Is a medicine appropriate for juvenile acne that suppurates and causes boils. It is indicated in cases where pimples are pustular in nature with thick yellow pus. Calcarea Sulphurica is most helpful where pustular acne oozes yellow colored pus.

  6. CALENDULA

    Applied locally stimulates the healing of pustules and limits the risk of superinfection.

  7. HEPAR SULPH - For Acne that is Pustular

    Pustular acne refers to acne that contains pus. The pus may sometimes be stained with blood. Where pus or bloodstained pus oozes out of pimples, Hepar Sulph will be effective. The pimples may be extremely painful here. Acne in youth is also best treated with Hepar Sulph. Relieves pustular acne aggravated by cold weather, with a foul-smelling pus.

  8. BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM - To Erase Acne Scars

    Berberis Aquifolium is one of the majorly indicated medicines for acne that result in the formation of scars. This medicine helps clear off acne scars wonderfully well. It is useful where the skin is rough and the acne persistent.

  9. NATRUM MURATICUM - For Acne on Cheeks

    Natrum Mur will show best results in itchy acne on oily cheeks. Prickling pain in the acne is complained of. Natrum Mur is also prescribed for acne in girls who are anemic. It acts especially on the sebaceous glands, and is a very helpful remedy in acne.

  10. ANTIM CRUDE - For Acne on Cheeks

    There are acne of granular like eruption, lumpy, red, burning, suppurating postural like eruptions on the face with red areola have an inflamed base that is red, and sensitive. Acne is of in blotches type over cheek and a heat sensation. Postural type of acne. The emotional picture of the person is depression in the deep seated triggers factor. Person is exhausted for his life. Generally acne appears at teen age or in younger age group. Tendency to weight gain, fatty, obese children who are fund of taking more junk foods and fast foods. Person is mentally very exhausted for this big acnes which making him/her to a depression state as because of ugly and dirty looking of facial skin.

  11. ARS IOD

    It is generally prescribed as constitutional treatment for acne condition. The acne is of postural or nodular type. Ars iod has the symptoms similarities of both arsenic album and iodium. The person is of irritable nature; don’t answer to the question asked by the doctor. Anger with irritability and restless nature with an anxiety types constitution. He is impatient and in a constant state of hurry. He becomes indifferent to his surroundings. He is unable to decide between two opinions. Those types of emotional make up initiates to secrets more androgen hormone and that stimulate the sebum gland to secret more sebum and acne appears. Basing on his/her emotional picture if this medicine is given can help to cure acne for a long term period

  12. CALCAREA CARB

    It is a great constitutional remedy for any disease including acne. Persons of psoric constitution with pale, weak , timid , shy nature and easily tired on any physical exertion. Weak in the sense of both physical and mental state. Feeling of fatigue. Though he has a weakness or fatigue feeling, but in body constitution is fatty and obese, gaining weight easily. He has the tendency to sweats a lot on slightest physical exertion. Those persons are very susceptible to catch cold easily. The calacarea carb person thinks a lot about the the very small things. He fears of losing his/her judgment capacity, fears of failure to complete any work perfectly. Always keep engage her mind on very small silly things and develop anxiety. Fear that something sad or terrible will happen. Fears that people are observing her confusion of mind. There is more sweating on his/her forehead. There are tiny eruptions like black heads on forehead.

  13. ASTERIA RUBENS

    A sycotic group of remedy. The acne generally occurs at teen age and more abundantly found on chin and side of nose. The person is of an anxiety, excited and irritable temperament. Sexual desire is increased in women. Bowel motion is not clear of constipated type. Like Nux Vom ineffectual desire for stool with hard, round.

  14. PSORINUM - For All Types of Acne

    The face is oily, more sebum secretion. The acnes are postular types. Generally acne develops in those who have more coffee addiction. Also taking more fatty foods, meats, more sugars, chocolates aggravates the acne eruption in face. There is more acne before the menstrual cycle. Any sort of emotional distress triggers the development of acne. The person is extremely psoric in nature. Very nervous in nature and easily frightened , anxiety with very restless nature. Sad, depressed for her ailments, thinks can’t recover. The person is very chilly patient feels chilly and cold in slightest cold weather, cannot tolerate little cold weather. the person have a chronic headache tendency when the stomach is empty, relieves while eating. He has a tendency of feeling hungry at the middle of night i.e. mid night hungry.

  15. KALI BROM - For Face, Chest, and Shoulders

    The Acnes are of postural, indurate nature. Scars left after the acne heals up. Physical constitution is of obese, younger person. The person is very nervous, depressed, low spirited in nature. The depression is mingled with anxiety and feels as if he would loss his mind. The person feels restless and no sleep at night due to worry or grief from loss of job, loss of business, loss of property, loss of reputation etc. Melancholic nature . and for eruptions of small and large boils in successive crops, mostly on face and trunk, with troublesome itching.

  16. SULPHUR – For Itchy Acne

    Sulphur is advised for people with dirty, unhealthy looking skin covered in acne that itch a lot. Scratching worsens the itching. The itching gets aggravated during the night. Warmth, too, worsens the itching. Burning sensation may also be observed.

  17. BOVISTA – For Acne made Worse with Make-Up

    Bovista Lycoperdon is the most significant remedy that offers help in treating acne that arise or worsen with the use of cosmetic products. This acne is mainly papular. Swelling of cheeks may be noted along with the acne. Pain and itching may attend.

  18. NUX VOMICA – For Acne Attended with Gastric Complaints

    Nux Vomica works well for acne when it is attended with gastric complaints. The gastric complaint is mainly due to chronic constipation or indigestion. The acne may be itchy and accompanied by a burning sensation.